Government preparations for World War Two on the home front
In the later years of the 1930s, the British Government was stepping up its preparations for war. They were certain it would come, athough it was September 1939 before it did.
Overview of plans for the WW2 home front: Civil Defence Leaflet no 1
As an example of the advance preparation for war, as early as July 1939 the Lord Privy Seal's Office distributed a leaflet under the banner of the Civil Defence entitled Some things you should know if the war should come. It was Public Information Leaflet no.1.
The leaflet consisted of a single sheet of paper folded double, with a two-page spread of information on the inside continued on the back.
The text of the leaflet is in the following box, together with links to more information on this website. Alternatively the text can be read by clicking the thumbnail images.
The leaflet seems to be an overview of what was circulated in more detail in later leaflets.
SOME THINGS YOU SHOULD KNOW IF WAR SHOULD COME
PUBLIC INFORMATION LEAFLET no 1
The object of this leaflet is to tell you now some of the things you ought to know if you are to be ready for the emergency of war.
This does not mean that war is expected now, but it is everyone's duty to be prepared for the possibility of war.
Further leaflets will be sent to you to give you fuller guidance on particular ways in which you can be prepared.
The Government are taking all possible measures for the defence of the country, and have made plans for protecting you and helping you to protect yourselves, so far as may be, in the event of war.
You, in your turn, can help to make those plans work, if you understand them and act in accordance with them.
No-one can tell when or how war might begin, but the period of warning might be very short. There would be no time then to begin to think what you ought to do.
READ WHAT FOLLOWS, and think NOW.
When air raids are threatened, warning will be given in towns by sirens or hooters, which will be sounded, in some places by short blasts, and in other places by a warbling note, changing every few seconds. In war, sirens and hooters will not be used for any other purpose than this.
The warning may also be given by the Police or Air Raid Wardens blowing short blasts on whistles.
When you hear the warning, take cover at once. Remember that most of the injuries in an air raid are caused not by direct hits by bombs, but by flying fragments of debris or bits of shells. Stay under cover until you hear the sirens or hooters sounding continuously for two minutes on the same note, which is the signal "Raiders Passed".
If poison gas has been used, you will be warned by means of hand rattles. Keep off the streets until the poison gas has been cleared away. Hand bells will be rung when there is no longer any danger. If you bear the rattle when you are out, put on your gas mask at once and get indoors as soon as you can.
Make sure that all members of your household understand the meanings of these signals.
(2) GAS MASKS
If you have already got your gas mask, make sure that you are keeping it safely and in good condition for immediate use. If you are moving permanently, or going away for any length of time, remember to take your gas mask with you.
If you have not yet received your gas mask, the reason may be that it has been decided in your district to keep the masks in store until an emergency is threatened. If, however, you know that your neighbours have got their gas masks, and you have not got yours, report the matter to your Air Raid Warden.
(3) LIGHTING RESTRICTIONS
All windows, sky-lights, glazed doors, or other openings which would show a light, will have to be screened in war time with dark blinds or blankets, or brown paper pasted on the glass, so that no light is visible from outside. You should obtain now any materials you may need for this purpose.
No outside lights will be allowed, and all street lighting will be put out.
Instructions will be issued about the dimming of lights on vehicles.
(4) FIRE PRECAUTIONS
An air attack may bring large numbers of small incendiary bombs, which might start so many fires that the Fire Brigades could not be expected to deal with them all. Everyone should be prepared to do all he can to tackle a fire started in his own house. Most large fires start as small ones.
Clearing the top floor of all inflammable materials, lumber, etc., will lessen the danger of fire, and prevent a fire from spreading. See that you can reach your attic or roof space readily.
Water is the best means of putting out a fire started by an incendiary bomb. Have some buckets handy. But water can only be applied to the bomb itself in the form of a fine spray, for which a handpump with a length of hose and special nozzle are needed.
If you throw a bucket of water on a burning incendiary bomb it will explode and throw burning fragments in all d1rect1ons. You may be able to smother it with sand or dry earth.
Arrangements have been made by the Government for the voluntary evacuation from certain parts of the London area and of some other large towns of schoolchildren, children below school age if accompanied by their mothers or other responsible persons, expectant mothers, and adult blind persons who can be moved.
Parents in the districts concerned who wish to take advantage of the Government evacuation scheme for their children have already received or will receive full instructions what to do, if the need arises.
Those who have already made, or are making arrangements to send their children away to relations or friends must remember that while the Government evacuation scheme is in progress, ordinary railway and road services will necessarily be drastically reduced and subject to alterations at short notice.
Try to decide now whether you wish your children to go under the Government evacuation scheme and let your local authority know: if you propose to make private arrangements to send your children away, do not leave them to the last moment.
All who have work to do, whether manual, clerical or professional, should regard it as their duty to remain at their posts, and do their part in carrying on the life of the nation.
(6) IDENTITY LABELS
In war you should carry about with you your name and address clearly written. This should be on an envelope, card or luggage label, not on some odd piece of paper easily lost. In the case of children a label should be fastened. e.g. sewn, on to their clothes, in such a way that it will not readily become detached.
It is very important that at the outset of an emergency people should not buy larger quantities of foodstuffs than they normally buy and normally require. The Government are making arrangements to ensure that there will be sufficient supplies of food, and that every person will be able to obtain regularly his or her fair share; and they will take steps to prevent any sudden rise in prices. But if some people try to buy abnormal quantities, before the full scheme of control is working, they will be taking food which should be available for others.
If you wish, and are able to lay in a small extra store of non-perishable foodstuffs, there is no reason why you should not do so. They will be an additional insurance. But you should collect them now and not when an emergency arises.
(8) INSTRUCTIONS TO THE PUBLIC IN CASE OF EMERGENCY
Arrangements will be made for information and instructions to be issued to the public in case of emergency, both through the Press, and by means of Broadcast Announcements. Broadcasts may be made at special times, which will be announced beforehand, or during the ordinary News Bulletins.
There were four more Public Information leaflets issued during the course of the war. Links are in the relevant pages on the WW2 menus, but for completeness they are also linked here.