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Postage stamps could be bought in a post office or from vending machines - always just called stamp machines.
In the early mid 1900s, stamps showed the head of George V and then briefly that of Edward VIII. He was only king for a very short time as he abdicated in favour of George VI. Only four stamps were produced during the short reign of Edward VIII.
The earliest stamps that I knew in general use showed the head of George VI.
When George VI died, stamps showed the young head of Queen Elizabeth II. For pictures of these stamps, see the photo of postcards below which opens on click to a large image.
There is a picture of an Edwardian stamp in the early 1900s section on posting mail.
All the stamps stuck onto the envelopes with a type of gum or glue that was non-sticky when dry and which had to be moistened to become sticky. As with the flaps of envelopes, most people simply licked, although businesses had special arrangements of sponges in water.
There was no such thing as a 'class' of stamp or class of postage. The Post Office simply dealt with all mail as quickly as possible - a much more efficient arrangement in my view.
Mail to Australia took six weeks by surface mail. Presumably mail to other overseas countries also took a long time, but I don't know how long. I think there was airmail but ordinary families would never have dreamt of using it. It is hardly surprising that families lost touch with one another after an emigration.
I can't remember any post (ie mail) being franked by the sender, although I can't be sure that it didn't exist. Businesses publicised themselves by perforating their postage stamps with some sort of simple logo. If you click on the photo of the postcards for a larger image, these perforations show up clearly on the front postcard.
My aunt worked for the Prudential Assurance Company (PAC) and my family would always know from the envelope that a letter was from her because of the perforated PAC stamps. In today's terms, these were 'stolen' from her employer for personal use, but she never thought of it that way. As she told me several times, "It's all right to take stamps!". Interesting - as she was otherwise of totally upright character.