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Knitting patterns were regularly included in women's magazines. Whenever a woman found such a pattern, she would cut it out and keep it because she never knew when it would come in useful.
Knitting patterns were also sold in wool shops, but they were relatively expensive and added to the cost of making the garment.
Often knitting patterns were loaned around among women.
Knitting needles were made of bone or steel (not stainless steel), and they came in different thicknesses, called the 'gauge'. The gauge affected the size of the stitches - the larger the gauge, the larger the stitches.
Knitting needles could be bought from wool shops, but as they were effectively indestructible, most women built up a stock of them.
Unfortunately, even using the size of needle specified in the knitting pattern, one could never be completely certain that the garment would turn out to be the expected size. The problem was not entirely with the needles. It lay with the tension, ie how tightly or loosely one pulled on the wool when knitting.
The pattern always specified how many stitches there should be to an inch and advised that if you knitted more tightly, you should use larger needles - and conversely, if you knitted loosely, you should use smaller needles. However, knitting is necessarily somewhat elastic, and without working a very large test piece - which no-one I knew ever bothered to do - it was impossible to be sure whether or not one was knitting to the right tension. This sometimes led to a rather disappointing result, in that hours of work could produce a garment that was too tight or too loose.
Knitting patterns used their own 'shorthand' for the various knitting actions.
This 'shorthand' has almost entirely remained unchanged over the years. There is one exception, however: the abbreviation 'w' for wool has been widely replaced by 'y' for yarn to reflect the variety of man-made fibres which have replaced wool.
Knitting patterns and their shorthand were straight-forward to follow when you were used to them, rather in the same way as text spelling is on a phone.