Stages in setting up WW2 rationing
Everybody had to get an identity card. To do this, the women collected
together the whole family's birth certificates, and took them to their local
church hall or school or somewhere similar, rather like the usage of buildings
as polling stations today.
With the family's identity card with
them, the women - it was invariably women - later returned to the school
or church hall to collect the family's ration books. Even the Royal Family
had ration books.
The women then took their ration books along to their local grocers
and butchers to register with them.
A ration book contained coupons, which were very small
squares, one for each week. These were for what the Ministry of Food considered
to be our basic needs, which were tea, cheese, butter, margarine, bacon,
porridge, wheat flakes and shredded wheat, lard, sugar and eggs.
Stage 4 - at the grocers
Each week the women
went to their appointed grocer's shop, handed the grocer the families' ration
books and he would cut out that week's coupons. These coupons were then
sent to the Ministry of Food to be counted. That way they could calculated
just how much that grocer's future supplies should be.
You were given what the grocer had been supplied with.
Some weeks there would be wheat flakes, other weeks it would be loose porridge.
Biscuits came loose and a weekly allowance per person
was announced on the radio and in the newspapers. There was very little
choice, you got what was available.
I remember just standing at the grocers with my mother.
She handed him the books, he put our rations on the counter and not a word
would be spoken. There was no point, as everyone had to have whatever the
grocer had that week. There was no alternative.
Stage 4 - at the butchers
Once families had
registered with a butcher, they would wait in queues each week to collect
their meat ration. There was little choice. The butcher could only sell
what he had been issued with. Again the weekly coupons would be cut out.
Stage 4 - all basic food
All food, milk and meat prices were set by the Ministry of Food.
So a pint of milk, a loaf of bread, or a jar of jam was the same price in every shop in the UK.
Stage 4 - at sweet shops
Although we did not have to register at any particular
shop for sweets, we usually went to the nearest one where they knew us.
Throughout the war the ration was 4 oz per week per person. My family would
go to our local newsagent as this was where there was the largest choice:
row upon row of large glass jars of
sweets every colour of the rainbow. Sweets
were our on big treat of the week and how we children spent our pocket money.
Stage 4 - at clothes shops
Each person was entitled to a certain number of clothing
coupons which could be used in any clothing shop, and each item of clothing
carried a price and the number of points needed to obtain it. Coupons could
be saved up over the weeks.
Stage 4 - Seasonal Produce
All food (with very few exceptions) was produced within
this country, and according varied with the season. The Ministry of Food
would announce on the radio and in the newspapers that the week's ration
per person was going up or down depending on current supplies.
Stage 4 - Food Imports from Overseas
During the first two years of the war America did not
take part as they were neutral. We British were on our own and our biggest
and best friend was Canada. It supplied us with vital supplies from day
one and at great risk to its merchant seamen. Canada has always been a modest
nation, even today their contribution in Afghanistan and Iraq goes unnoticed
by the world's media. It was in these first two years of the war that the
Germans with the submarines tried to starve this country into submission,
and Canada came to our rescue. Today, freedom gives us choice. As we have
a choice, we are fussy. Had the Germans managed to invade our country, I
hate to think what choice they would have given us. The history books tell
what the did in the rest of Europe.
Stage 4 - Petrol
Petrol was not on sale for private use, only for work
deemed essential. A permit was needed to obtain it. Cars were therefore few and
far between. All large cars were confiscated
and converted into vans and ambulances.
Stage 4 -Coal
Coal was rationed.
Being born in 1939, the year that the Second World War
started, I grew up with rationing. It started on the 8th of January 1940, four
months after the outbreak of war and didn't end completely until 1954. So until
I was nearly 14, I knew nothing else, and it didn't seem strange to me.
It was the
adults who complained about having to go without, because they remembered pre-war times.
My friends and
I knew nothing of luxury foods, and probably grew up healthier as a result.
A glance at my class photo
from around the end of the war will confirm that none of us carried any excess
no recollections at all of going without food, clothes or toys, or of being
particularly hungry. I suppose that that meant that rationing really did work,
with everyone getting what they needed, if not what they wanted.
Ration books came in different colours, but the only ones which I remember
seeing were buff coloured ones for adults and blue ones for older children
(between five and 16 years old). I understand that there were also green ration
books for children under five, pregnant women and nursing mothers, who had first
choice of fruit, a daily pint of milk and a double supply of eggs.
Ration books were guarded very carefully. Once my mother left hers on the
shop counter of Maynards the
sweet shop, and when she went back the assistants denied all knowledge of
it. My mother got very upset but I never knew the outcome.
The severity of rationing
It is only in later years that I have come to appreciate quite how severe
the rationing was. I am told that each adult was allowed one egg per week, 2
oz of bacon, 2 oz of margarine and 2 oz of tea. Butter was reserved for children
under five and pregnant and nursing women. Everyone else had margarine - the
hard cooking sort, not the soft spreads.
Eggs were available widely in
rural areas where people could keep hens, but that wasn't practical where I
lived. (Various websites give full details of ration allowances in the Second
World War and its aftermath which I won't repeat here and which I never knew
at the time anyway.)
An adult's margarine ration in WW2
An adult's weekly margarine ration of 2 oz was just
less than a quarter of a standard UK pack of 500 grams - and there was
An adult's sugar ration in WW2
It would take about four months of an adult's sugar
ration to fill a standard UK kilo bag of sugar.
Fortunately potatoes, other non-imported vegetables and bread were not rationed,
although they were often simply not available or rationed by shops according
to what was in stock.
My mother always said that large families were more able to cope because
the women could do more with what they were allowed. "One bit of food works
in with another", she used to say.
The vegetarian option
My husband remembers his mother registering him as a vegetarian so as to
get extra cheese. Apparently this more than compensated for the loss of meat,
and the rest of the family shared their meat and cheese anyway. I suspect that
my mother probably registered me as a vegetarian too, but I can't be sure.
Retail price maintenance (RPM)
The practice of all shops having to sell their goods
at set prices was called ‘Retail Price Maintenance’ (RPM), and it was an
essential part of the Government's rationing policy in the war when families
were not allowed to shop around for rationed goods. The practice continued
by law – for some goods at least – until into the 1960s. When RPM was repealed,
I was a young woman by then, and I assumed that prices would go up. In the
short term, however, they didn’t, because shops competed with one another
This website Join me in the 1900s
is a contribution to the social history of everyday life in 20th century Britain from the early 1900s to about 1960, seen through personal recollections and illustrations, with the emphasis on what it was like to live in those times. It is © Pat Cryer.