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As the pages on domestic phones and public phones illustrate, all the 'modern' telephones in 1940s and 1950s Britain had a handset which rested on a cradle. The handset contained a mouthpiece and an earpiece.
To start making a call, the caller lifted the handset from its cradle and waited to hear the dial-tone in the earpiece. If there was no dial tone, the phone either wasn't working - a not uncommon situation in and after the Second World War or was one of the very early phones.
On hearing the dial tone, the caller put a finger into a dial hole and dragged the dial round to the 'stop'.
On removal of the finger, the dial returned itself to its original position, ready for the next number to be dialled. As it returned, it made a clicking sound: one click for the first hole, two for the second, etc.
All numbers had to be dialled or connected through the operator. The saving of numbers electronically was decades away. Most people kept note books of numbers that they often wanted to dial. Some of these were designed for the purpose along the lines of card indexes.
To call the operator one simply dialled O. Having to dial the operator was relatively common in the 1940s and 50s because something often went wrong with the call that needed to be put right by the operator. Also long-distance calls couldn't be dialled directly.
Most of the old telephone dials seem to have Q, O and 0 at the far end of the dial, i. e. the O and Q are not in alphabetical order and the zero is not in numerical order.
Perhaps this may be because the three look so similar that it avoided misdialling. In other words, if someone meant to dial O and dialled 0 by mistake, it would not matter because the same code would be sent to the exchange. It is interesting to speculate whether the order of the letters on the old dials could be the origin of zero being frequently pronounced as 'owe' or whether the placement merely accommodated an existing practice.
Interestingly, an image search on old telephone dials shows that the Q was missing altogether on some dials.
The phone rang when a caller was on the line. To receive the call - or 'answer the phone' as it was called - one just lifted the handset from its cradle. The correct procedure was to let callers know that they had the right number. Our telephone number was Stonegrove 9804 - yes it was called a number even though it contained a word. So our family would simply say into the handset "Stonegrove 9804" and wait for the caller to respond. At that time it was considered bad manners just to say, "Hello", and it would never have occurred to anyone to say their name instead.
Returning the handset to its cradle cut off the call. This was known as 'putting the phone down'.
Phones in households were comparatively unusual while I was growing up. So I was in employment before I needed to answer a phone call. The bell rang, so, being alone, I picked up the handpiece and gave the name of my employer, as I had heard others do. (Good manners demanded that one never merely answered "hello"). The caller asked for a person I would need to go to find. Naturally, I could not take the handpiece with me. So I put it back on its cradle. I cut off a number of calls this way. Eventially it was explained to me that I should leave the handpiece on the desk, off its cradle, to keep the connection alive.